ISS Expedition 35 mission is the designation for the 35 long-term crew of the International Space Station ( ISS). The mission began with the uncoupling of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 06M from the ISS on March 15, 2013. The end was marked by the uncoupling of Soyuz TMA- 07M on 13 May 2013.
- 2.1 Express approach
- 2.2 spacewalks
- 2.3 Communications and computer technology
- 2.4 freighter traffic
- 2.5 return
- 2.6 Miscellaneous
- Chris Austin Hadfield ( third space flight), Commander, ( Canada / CSA) ( Soyuz TMA- 07M )
- Henry Thomas Marshburn ( second space flight), flight engineer, (USA / NASA) ( Soyuz TMA- 07M )
- Roman Romanenko Jurjewitsch ( second space flight), flight engineer, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 07M )
Additionally since March 29, 2013
- Christopher John Cassidy ( second space flight), flight engineer, (USA / NASA) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )
- Pavel Vinogradov ( third space flight), flight engineer, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )
- Alexander Alexandrovich Missurkin ( first space flight), flight engineer, ( Russia / Roscosmos ) ( Soyuz TMA- 08M )
After undocking of Soyuz TMA- 07M with Romanenko, Marshburn and Hadfield Vinogradov took command and formed with Missurkin Cassidy and the initial crew of the ISS Expedition 36
The backup crew of ISS Expedition recruited from the backup crews of the Soyuz shuttle respective spaceships ( see there). If everything is going according to plan, these teams two Soyuz missions and thus two ISS expeditions are then usually later for regular use.
With the uncoupling and the landing of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 06M on 15 March 2013, the occupation Oleg Novitsky, Kevin Ford and Yevgeny Tarelkin the ISS Expedition 35 began the day before Ford had command of the station the first time a Canadian, namely Chris Hadfield, passed. Until the end of March was the crew of the ISS from Chris Hadfield, Roman Romanjenko and Thomas Marshburn.
Again was the scientific research in the foreground. In addition to studies that deal with various aspects of human health, with adjustment operations on a longer stay in weightlessness, even astronomical, biological, physical and technical investigations were made. An important task was the Earth exploration. A total of 181 research projects were on the program.
Experiments that the six astronauts dealt aboard the ISS were, among others, Energy, in which a long -term conversion of the energy balance is investigated in the human organism during the stay in weightlessness, cascade, are cultivated at the micro-organisms, animal and human cells and albedo, in which the radiation reflected from the Earth is measured in different spectral ranges. In addition, Earth observations and photography were performed.
On March 28, launched Soyuz TMA- 08M, for the first time in the " Express Mode". The astronaut Pavel Vinogradov, Christopher Cassidy and Alexander Misurkin coupled already after almost 6 hours of flight time on the ISS and increased the crew of the station again to 6 people.
When convergence process within 50 hours, as it always was used in recent years, the ISS can predict fly the space ship up to 270 degrees. For the ISS requires 67-68 minutes. This fact that the orbital plane crosses the starting location and the ISS is maximum 68 minutes ahead, enters daily.
In the new method, the adjustment maneuvers must be performed in successive shorter time. During this time, the spacecraft can not make up such a high phase angle of 270 degrees and simultaneously adjust the trajectory of the target. The angle must be limited to about 30 degrees. This means that the ISS may not have eight minutes previously flown over the launch site. This occurs only at a distance of about 3 days.
The new, faster Rendezvous was previously tested with three unmanned Progress transporters. But it is important, especially for manned missions. This is the time which accommodate the astronauts in the pretty cramped conditions inside the Soyuz capsule, shortened significantly improves the comfort of the overall mission.
On April 20, completed Pavel Vinogradov and Roman Romanjenko the first spacewalk of the year 2013. Doing so, they installed two probes that serve to plasma research. In addition, experimental samples were recovered and exchanged a laser reflector. The sample of the experiment Wuinosliwost ( Выносливость to German: endurance) but slipped from the hands of Pavel Vinogradov and was lost.
Shortly before the end of the mission, an ammonia leak in the cooling system of the solar module P6 was discovered on May 9. This module was launched in December 2000 with the Space Shuttle mission STS -97 to the ISS. Then an unplanned EVA by Thomas Marshburn and Christopher Cassidy was scheduled at short notice. The two had already worked together successfully on STS -127 in two spacewalks. To solve the problem, they exchanged on May 11 from a Pumpensteuerungsbox the affected solar module.
Communications and computer technology
On April 2, a part of the communication system of the US-based portion of the space station has been renewed. The work was done by Thomas Marshburn and Chris Hadfield on avionics cabinet 3 in the laboratory module Destiny and took on several days each several hours to complete. First, the video broadband unit ( VBSP ) was expanded. Subsequently, the new Ku-band communications unit was 2 (ICU -2) installed and connected.
After activation, the unit first tests were carried out. Meanwhile, the communication ran over other systems. On April 11, an identical unit ICU -1 was installed, which then was a complete redundancy.
Using the new communication system, the data rate rises to the ground from 150 to 300 Mbit / s and from the ground station from 3 to 25 Mbit / s Here, the number of available video channels from the station increased from 4 to 6 and that of the audio channels from 2 to 4 In addition to the new Ku -band system also offer the opportunity to important functions of the station from Earth remotely control when communicating through S-band fails.
Early May, several notebooks have been converted to the International Space Station from Microsoft Windows to a Linux distribution. Specifically, the computers of the so-called Operations LAN were provided with an installation of Debian 6. Integrated in the image were also all applications required. The computer of the OpsLAN be eg for management operations as well as personal contact with the earth used over the Internet and as assistants for the crew members. In addition, the on-board cameras to be controlled by this computer. Mission Critical applications will not run on these laptops.
On board the International Space Station Hundreds of computers, including over 140 laptops. Of these, however, are only about 20 networked in OpsLAN. A variety of notebooks is the care of experiments. Various programs can be selected, set specific parameters and measurements are recorded. These are then often copied to removable media or sent by radio to Earth.
For some time machines to Red Hat Linux and Scientific Linux used on board the ISS, which can be gradually replaced by the more modern Debian 6 now. Similarly, some computers with Windows operating system are still used.
On March 26, the Dragon CRS -2- capsule returned to Earth. She was released on 11.56 clock hours from the manipulator arm of the ISS and had begun after several distance maneuvers against clock 16.42 CET with the ten minute final braking maneuver. Shortly thereafter, the command module entered into denser layers of the atmosphere and was thereby greatly slowed. After that first opened the three main parachutes, which further slowed the airplane pilot and later. Against 17.34 clock, the capsule splashed down in the Pacific at the coordinates 30.5 ° N, 120 ° West. For the Canadian CSA were samples and hardware parts of Micro Flow and Vascular aboard for ESA results or parts of Energy and Biolabs and for the JAXA materials of medaka, Hair, Stem Cells, Hikari, EPO and MIP2. The majority of the sample and the returned utensils originating from experiments at NASA, including HRP, BCAT, BRIC, Cell Bio Tech, CGBA, PIG and SCK. But it has also a part of the station apparatus for testing is returned to the earth. These were a total of 401 kg of a medical system ( Crew Health Care System ), an environmental control system ( Environmental Control and Life Support System), the power supply system EPS ( Electric Power System) as well as TCTT.
On April 21, burned up the already six days previously uncoupled from the station cargo ship Progress M - 17M. His successor was launched on 24 April, but had a problem. One of the radar antennas, are used in the approach to the space station for determining position and speed was not expanded. So took the cosmonauts from inside the station use in remote and very slow approach. The reflector of the antenna has in the folded state at only a distance of a few millimeters to the coupling unit.
On May 12, Chris Hadfield handed over command of the station to his Russian colleague Pavel Vinogradov. The next day, Chris Hadfield, Tom Marshburn and Roman Romanjenko boarded their ship and coupled into the night May 14 from module Rasswjet. With the successful landing their mission in space was at an end. However, a series of tests was on, particularly among the re-adaptation were accompanied to the force of gravity.
On April 4, the results of the first evaluation of the hitherto 18-month measurements of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS were presented on the earth. With this complex research apparatus you are looking for anti - and dark matter in space, but had so far no success message must be produced.
On April 29, Chris Hadfield photographed a small hole in one of the solar panels. This was apparently unnoticed by the impact of micrometeorites or part of space junk came with a diameter of 1 to 2 millimeters, the energy supply to the station, however, hardly affected.
Towards the end of the mission, a video was released in which Chris Hadfield sang their own version of David Bowie 's classic Space Oddity. The video has more than 15 million times within the first month.
Roman Romanjenko after the flight had a few more unusual activities on the plan. On May 15, he led in a centrifuge from a simulation of a hand- controlled Mars landing. A day later, an exit followed under Martian conditions. He hung in a frame, which was adjusted so that he had to overcome seemingly only a third of the Earth's gravity.