ISS Expedition 32 mission is the designation for the 32 long-term crew of the International Space Station ( ISS). The mission began on July 1, 2012 4:47 UTC with the uncoupling of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 03M from the ISS. The end was marked by the uncoupling of Soyuz TMA- 04M on 17 September 2012.
- 2.1 crew changes
- 2.2 freighter traffic
- 2.3 orbital maneuvers
- 2.4 extravehicular activities 2.4.1 1st exit
- 2.4.2 2nd exit
- 2.4.3 3rd exit
- Gennady Ivanovich Padalka (4th space flight), Commander, ( Roscosmos / Russia) ( Soyuz TMA- 04M )
- Sergei Nikolaevich Rewin ( first space flight ), flight engineer ( Roscosmos / Russia) ( Soyuz TMA- 04M )
- Joseph Michael Acaba ( second space flight), flight engineer (NASA / USA) ( Soyuz TMA- 04M )
Additionally from July 17, 2012
- Sunita Williams ( second space flight ), aircraft engineer, (NASA / USA) ( Soyuz TMA- 05M )
- Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko ( fifth space flight), flight engineer, ( Roscosmos / Russia) ( Soyuz TMA- 05M )
- Akihiko Hoshide ( second space flight), flight engineer, ( JAXA / Japan) ( Soyuz TMA- 05M )
After undocking of Soyuz TMA- 04M with Padalka, Rewin and Acaba Williams takes command and forms Malenchenko and Hoshide the initial crew of the ISS Expedition 33
The backup crew of ISS Expedition recruited from the backup crews of the Soyuz shuttle respective spaceships ( see there). If everything is going according to plan, these teams two Soyuz missions and thus two ISS expeditions are then usually later for regular use.
During the service period of the Expedition 32 three exits were completed. While the outboard work, a crane arm were moved, exchanged a switching unit, a new power cable laid, installed meteorite protection plates, changed a camera and salvaged a Experimentenbox. New cargo came with a Progress freighter and a HTV to the station. An ATV had applied to their rear in March. This not only experiments, fuel and consumer goods have been delivered to the ISS but also raised their path to an average of more than 410 km. Supervised by the crew and many of the more than 200 current scientific studies have been carried out. However, some of them ran largely automatic on the outside or inside of the station. Another part needs temporary care. In experiments with bio- medical content, however, are the spaceman key players and object of study equally. A continuous testing program also completed the seventh crew member, Robonaut 2
With the return of the crew of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 03M Expedition 31 ended but the crew of Soyuz TMA- 04M did not last long however. Already on July 15 launched Soyuz TMA- 05M and docked two days later with the station. The crew of the spaceship consisted of Yuri Malenchenko, who has already completed his fifth space flight, Sunita Williams, who was the second time to an ISS crew and Akihiko Hoshide for which it was also the second space flight. On board the station already Gennady Padalka wait, Joseph Acaba and Sergei Rewin that were since mid-May in space. Both teams immediately began her work as ISS Expedition.
Already on July 21 launched the Japanese cargo ship Kounotori 3 ( HTV 3) at the top of an H- IIB rocket from Tanegashima Space Centre of into space. Approximately 4.6 tons of cargo were on board in the form of experiments, food, utensils and clothing. The cylindrical space ship navigated on 27 July in the vicinity of the space station, gave about 10 meters below the bow station and was then coupled by means of the manipulator by a member of the ISS Expedition 32 on the Harmony module.
Part of the cargo was placed in a non-pressurized area of the spaceship. This was the one about a Japanese unit for joint supervision of different experiments (MCE ), the other to a device for carrying out complex communication experiments in different radio bands, which will be provided and used by NASA.
The Space Communications and Navigation Testbed ( SCAN) has three programmable radios and associated antennas in S-, L- and Ka-band. Scan was developed under the direction of Glenn Research Center NASA, suppliers were General Dynamics, Harris Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (all USA). The to be attached to the grid structure apparatus different radio configurations, which are controlled by software, have been tested. The programming could be effected both by companies commissioned and by voluntarily sent in solutions, such as by teams from universities or industry.
On board of Kounotori 3 was also a starting device for small satellites and CubeSats 5 that were started later during the mission of the Japanese astronaut Akihiko Hoshide. For this we use the lock in the Kibo module. The payloads were individually transported from the station, positioned with the Japanese manipulator arm and then pushed away. When the satellite it was RAIKO ( Earth observation, railway surveying, high speed data transmission, brake sailing ), FITSAT -1 (LED communication), WE WISH (infrared recordings, training), F -1 ( Earth observation, sensors, magnetic attitude control ) and TechEdSat (communication via satellite phone networks).
Also on board were two HTV 3 data recorder who recorded data during re-entry of the spacecraft. From the USA came a ReEntry Breakup Recorder, which has already been tested in a previous mission. Japan introduced the i- ball, which was even equipped with a camera.
The scientific equipment of the ISS was after unloading is also an aquarium to study the long-term effects of weightlessness on muscle and bone in fish ( Aquatic Habitat). It can automatically adjust the supply of fish to take and has built-in sensors to record the most important parameters.
As part of the Youtube Spacelab two winners were named in March, their experiments were transported by HTV 3 to the International Space Station. This was the one for an investigation, the changes in the ability of bacteria to control fungal growth in zero gravity, on the other hand the adaptation of a zebra spider was explored to weightlessness.
After only 5 hours and 43 minutes of flight of August 1, launched freighter Progress M - 16M has moored to the International Space Station. In order for a new Rendezvous was tested, which is used in manned Soyuz spacecraft since 2013. So far, about 50 hours were scheduled for approach, approach and coupling. This approximately two-day flight to space stations had been customary Progress 1 in January 1978 and was taken with the construction of the space station Mir in 1986 for manned spaceships. Previously stayed here for approximation and coupling 24 hours usual. At the time of the transition to the two-day approach was based on fuel savings.
Progress M - 16M was launched against 21:35 clock CEST from Baikonur into space. After 9 minutes, the spacecraft was loaded with 2639 kg freight, separated from the upper stage and unfolded its solar panels was. On board were next to fuel, oxygen, water, food and consumer goods and materials for the experiments visor, MATI 75, Relaksazija, SLS, vector T, Tipologija, aseptic, 's 's 2, Kaskad, Biodegradazija and Kulonowski crystal as well as equipment for the Russian and U.S. -based segment of the ISS.
After a self-test, the engines of the spaceship against 22:25 clock were first put into operation. There followed a series of corrective maneuvers that brought the spacecraft within 3 orbits of near the International Space Station. Then flew around Progress M - 16M the station so that it had the Pirs module in front of you. Then, the distance has been reduced and coupled to plan against 3:18 clock CEST.
On July 31, the predecessor, Progress M - 15M had finally decoupled from Pirs and moves away from the station. He had arrived in April to the ISS and had already filed on July 22 for the first time. Thereafter, a re- coupling has been tested, with an improved price -NA radar system was used. Due to a temperature or sensor problem, the coupling had worked only in the second trial on July 29.
On September 12, the unmanned freighter Kounotori 3 was disconnected by the station manipulator Canadarm2 from the station. Previously, two systems ( REBR and i- ball ) had been installed and activated, with which certain parameters were recorded during the catastrophic for the spacecraft reentry. This took place in the morning hours of the 14th of September.
An August 15 through run maneuvers to raise the average orbital altitude of the International Space Station via the engines of the coupled at the rear ATV " Edoardo Amaldi " was shorter than planned. Instead of the prescribed 31 minutes and 16 seconds for a speed increase of 4.4 meters per second, of the drive of the ATV has already been turned off after about 22 minutes and 30 seconds. So that only an increase in speed of 2.91 meters per second was achieved. The cause for this is stated on the part of the ESA, that a temperature sensor on one of the two not involved in the drive process engines in the ATV has detected too high a value and passed to the controller on board the ISS. Then the drive operation has been canceled, which is not actually represented the expected response to such an operation. To make the responsible enough time for fault analysis and planning further measures, it was agreed to make up the additional correction a few days later.
Railway hikes are normally carried out at irregular intervals to compensate for the height of the one part loss due to friction in the well in more than 400 kilometers above still occurring, extremely thin air. Another reason is the fine adjustment of the track for upcoming events such as couplings or landings.
On August 22, the previously broken orbit raising maneuver was completed. For this, two engines of ATV 3 were activated during two firing stages, thus increasing the speed of the entire complex by 5.8 meters per second. (: Apogee 406 km, : perigee 427 km ) In order for the station rose to a higher orbit with an average of 416 km.
On August 20 Gennady Padalka and Yuri Malenchenko conducted a spacewalk. The two experienced astronauts should carry out various work on the outside of the station. First, it was because of a leak inside for about an hour delay. The exit has begun work on the relocation of mechanical crane arm Strela 2 by coupling and lock module Pirs for multipurpose Zarya module. For this, the Strela moved by some Poisk several months ago 1 was used.
This was followed by a passive, spherical micro-satellite for tracking by " throwing" exposed. This operation was followed by the installation of 5 meteorite protection panels on the outside of the service module Zvezda. Thus, the planned tasks were completed. In addition, brackets were mounted on a ladder and removed a container of the experiment Biorisk and stowed in a shipping container. This was then taken into the interior of the station. It contains biological samples that were exposed to the harsh environment for months outside the station. They were investigated in detail after their return to Earth.
In vain did the two spacemen to close another container with samples on the exterior of Pirs to this then to recover also. The experiment showed, however, carriers become unruly and so this additional task was canceled. The withdrawal ended after 5 hours and 51 minutes.
At the exit of Sunita Williams and Akihiko Hoshide on September 1, a power cable was laid between the module Unity via PMA -1 to Zarya. This is to be extended at a later spacewalk to the head part of the Zvezda and are used to power the research module Nauka. He should also follow a second cable so that thereafter every 4 current manifold are connected in the grid segment S0 of the US-based part of the ISS with the Russian segment. This happened with several exits following ISS expeditions in 2013.
Since one of the power distributor had failed, it had to be replaced. After dismantling the defective unit this was mounted on a storage platform and transported the replacement unit to the installation site. The transport was done by means of the great manipulator station, which was operated from inside the ISS. During installation, then a problem occurred with a screw, which could not be screwed in correctly even with increased torque and the cleaning of both threads. After provisional attachment but without the correct connection to the cooling system and power grid, the two astronauts completed after 8 hours and 17 minutes use.
To prepare for the spacewalk had applied a modified procedure. Instead of the night in the lock module quest to spend and breathe pure oxygen there, a two-hour procedure was used in the Williams and Hoshide with oxygen mask and already partially in the space suit ran lightweight athletic exercises range before surfacing dissolved in the blood nitrogen. This is required to prevent under the low pressure conditions of the U.S. space suits a bubble out of the nitrogen in the blood.
On September 5, Sunita Williams and Akihiko Hoshide took a second exit to install the main energy distributor 1 ( Main Bus Switching Unit = MBSU ) correctly. To this end, this first had again removed and stored temporarily in the vicinity. Then base thread and bolts H2 were cleaned using compressed air and a wire brush and lubricate using a modified toothbrush. Thereafter, a sample bolt could be screwed. After re- lubrication finally succeeded in the correct and complete screwing the H2 - bolt with installed MBSU. This was now sitting right on a cooling plate and could then be activated.
It still followed the replacement of a defective camera on the station manipulator Canadarm2, whereupon the spacewalk after 6 hours and 28 minutes could be completed successfully. During the phase-out, the two astronauts wore dosimeters Russian. Sunita Williams also took over so that the top position in the list of outboard workers at 44 hours and 2 minutes at 6 inserts from her colleague Peggy Whitson.
Maintenance and experiments
During the months of August and September only for routine several scientific studies or preparations were on to the program of work of the occupation. Thus, the video system in the Aquatic Habitat, a Japanese freshwater aquarium was tested. In the aquarium fish Oryzias latipes the genus ( medaka ) were first kept. These are semi-transparent, so that you can observe bone and muscle as well as the work of various organs directly from the outside. The effects of increased radiation and developmental changes ( modifications and mutations) would like to study. It is helpful that medaka have a high reproductive rate. In the aquarium fish can be kept about 90 days, until an exchange of water and maintenance is required.
Furthermore, were cleaned the Orlan -MS spacesuits used on 20 August and dried, refilled drinking water, the dosimeter removed for reading, performed in a glove box, a burning test of solid materials, found the air quality with various systems, and regular psychological tests performed ( WinSCAT ) that the development of memory skills, memory, abstraction and thinking skills are reviewed during prolonged space flights.
The program also included studies of the cardiovascular system (Integrated Cardiovascular / Kardiomed ) and the measurement of oxygen uptake during exercise. In addition, preparations were made for the U.S. withdrawal on September 1, an educational film for the separation of liquids and gases in microgravity rotated ( fisika Obrasowanije ), launched a Canadian experiment with colloids ( BCAT ), repositioned dosimeter in radiation measurement experiment matryoshka and morning reaction tests performed.
Also could also Robonaut 2 continue its testing program. For this he was brought to a particular job position and placed a circuit board in front of him. Activated from the ground he used this time also some knobs while he had operated pushbutton and toggle switches in previous phases of work. Shortly thereafter, he worked again with panel 1
Robonaut 2 was the end of August / beginning of September once again active. On the panels C and D, he held, inter alia, to take a swab to hold on to a handrail independently and then wipe this.
Other scientific studies have been focused on environmental monitoring in the station (air quality, biofilms on the walls and equipment), medical and care largely autonomous expiring experiments as BCAT ( behavior of colloids ), KASKAD or FASA ( recording the behavior of a mixture of liquid and gas in weightlessness for educational purposes ).
Exemplary of medical tests is here called an experiment wherein the ability of the heart tissue to stretch in modified blood distribution ( Gauer Henry reflex) is examined. Contributes the subject in the station, a vacuum pants ( Chibis ) and occurs from one leg to the other. More mobility hardly provides the vacuum pants. While the pressure in multiple stages is reduced by up to about 50 hPa, is measured by means of special equipment, the size of internal organs, in this case those of the heart.
With VISIR a new device was first tested, which should enable the automatic alignment of a camera on certain ground targets. Then pictures are taken and prepared for transmission to the ground. This should relieve in future space travelers who often get light of recent events, certain additional photo requests. This week, for example, involved a flood on the Black Sea.
Furthermore, the crew employed, among others, with the testing of new photographic and communication technology, studies on the human immune system ( Immuno ), radiation measurements in different parts of the station (including Matryoshka ), studies of responsiveness, resistance to stress, muscle and bone loss (including special diet for relief of rapid bone loss ) and cardiovascular testing. Maintenance related to a variety of systems of the station, the air monitoring and cleaning systems, toilets, experimental facilities, water treatment, computer or sports equipment.
Mentioned here are still the Biorhythmusexperiment CRHYT in which a subject wearing special sensors over 36 hours, the measured values are recorded and evaluated later. In SONOKARD a spaceman wearing a special shirt, are recognized over the life of important parameters. As part of ASEPTIC is examined as experimental systems for a long time can be kept free of germs. By means of a vacuum pants ( Chibis ) loads can be simulated, corresponding to those due to gravity on Earth. With Veterok a new electrostatic air purification system is tested, which can remove organic substances better from the air on a short-term ionization. Help hearing, vision and reaction tests in different phases of a long-term flight to determine physical and phsychische changes. With VISIR and the ISS Agricultural Camera ( ISSAC ) automatically images of different surfaces were prepared. For this, the cameras have computer controls and special sensors. While VISIR was still running in testing mode, recorded with the ISSAC images of pasture lands, forests, meadows and wetlands in the U.S. for agricultural assessments and educational purposes.
The training also served as the optical recording lengthy physical processes in microgravity. To this end, within the framework of FASA, the separation of liquid and gaseous phase were followed in a container. The new experiment Coulomb crystal also dealt with the arrangement of electrically charged particles in zero gravity. The new Aquatic Habitat also ran in September already in test mode. Here life and development of fish are to be observed over several generations.
Should be mentioned even a combustion experiment, the materials science applications Kaskad and BCAT ( colloids in microgravity ), studies on the structural dynamics of the station ( Identifikazija ). Further human studies related to changes in lung function ( lung volume, oxygen uptake in the context of VO2max ), noise measurements by stationary and mobile sensors as well as the effectiveness of a special training with a strong but short- term exposure for the reduction of muscle and bone loss ( SPRINT ).
As part of YouTube SpaceLab two student experiments were selected to be performed in space. When the life of a spider in zero gravity is put under the microscope. This experiment was then prepared. At certain times, it is intended to provide live broadcasts from the ISS.
End of Mission
With the drop of the spaceship Soyuz TMA- 04M on 16 September 2012, compared clock 23:09 UTC ISS Expedition 32 ended the day before Gennady Padalka had handed over command of the station to Sunita Williams, who allow the second woman in this is position. The landing of the command module of the Soyuz spacecraft was against 2:52 clock UTC northeast of Arkalyk in the Kazakh steppe. Gennady Padalka itself, Joseph Acaba and Sergei Rewin were on board. You have spent a total of 125 days in space, worked most of the time on board the ISS.