Shenzhen (深圳 市Chinese, Pinyin Shenzhen Shì ) is a sub- provincial city in Guangdong province of the People's Republic of China.
Shenzhen is located in the south of the province, separated only by a river from Hong Kong. The planned city is due to their status as a Special Economic Zone as one of the most important cities for foreign investment and is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. In 1979 lived in the present area just 30,000 inhabitants. Today, Shenzhen is a modern metropolis with over 10 million inhabitants, is growing almost as fast as Shanghai. Shenzhen is the city with the highest per capita income in China ( excluding Hong Kong and Macao). Supporting pillar of the local economy is the electronics and telecommunications industry.
- 2.1 The name of the city
- 2.2 The period before the establishment of the Special Economic Zone
- 2.3 Establishment and extension of the Special Economic Zone
- 3.1 Relations between Hong Kong and Shenzhen
- 5.1 Economics
- 6.1 Road and rail transport
- 6.2 airport
- 6.3 seaport
- 7.1 Dafen artist village
- 7.2 Tropical Island Nei Ling Ding Dao
- 8.1 Theme Parks
The Boomtown Shenzhen is located in the south of Guangdong Province in the Pearl River Delta. The city covers an area of 1991 km ². From Hong Kong it separate the rivers Sham Chun and Sha Tau Kok.
Shenzhen was originally a hilly area with fertile farmland. However, after the introduction of the special economic zone led to profound changes in the landscape. The once hilly fishing village was largely leveled for the urban area and slightly raised. From satellites considered only Lotus Hill, Mount Bijia and Mount Wutong can be seen as increases in the city. Due to the ongoing construction boom in the city including the area around the Mission Hills is partially leveled to make it usable. In addition polders be applied to wrest the sea further arable land in the numerous bays.
The sub- provincial city of Shenzhen is made at the county level from ten districts (区Qū ). Four of these districts are newly established, so-called " functional city districts " (功能 区), the short hand " new districts " (新区) were called. The "old" city districts are administrative divisions of the first degree, that is, they have both chambers of parliament ( People's Congress and Consultative Conference ), as well as a People's Government (人民政府), which is elected by the People's Congress of the borough. The functional urban districts, however, are administrative divisions of the second degree, namely "City Central authorities ", ie they do not have people's congresses, no Consultative and especially not people's governments. Their management is determined and used directly by the city of Shenzhen.
The six "old" city districts:
1 Census 2010.
The four "new" city districts:
1 Guangming was founded on 31 May 2007, Pingshan on 30 June 2009, Dapeng 27 October 2011 and Longhua on 30 December 2011.
The Special Economic Zone (SEZ, Eng. Special Economic Zone ) was extended on 1 July 2010 the two municipalities Bao'an and Longgang and since then includes the entire metropolitan area. The traditional financial and commercial center is located in the region adjacent to Hong Kong, Luohu District. Futian, the Municipality where the city government is and has evolved over the past decade to the new financial and commercial center of the city, located in the heart of the SEZ. In the district of Nanshan in the western SEZ the high-tech industry is located. The municipality Yantian is the hub for the logistics activities of Shenzhen.
Ethnic structure of the population of Shenzhen (2000)
In census 2000 7.008.831 inhabitants were counted in Shenzhen.
Shenzhen has an annual average temperature of 22.4 ° C and an annual precipitation of 1933 mm. The climate can be described as subtropical marine climate. In spring and autumn can be expected with the frequent occurrence of tropical cyclones ( typhoons ).
The name of the city
The city's name appears during the Ming Dynasty in 1410 for the first time. At that time the territory of innumerable rivers and streams was thwarted, which served to drain the rice fields. The people called this drainage ditches as' zhen (圳) ". "Shen (深) " means " deep ."
Shenzhen written in Chinese characters
Can thus be roughly translated as " deep drainage ditches ."
The period before the establishment of the Special Economic Zone
Originally focused on the area of the present town of Bao'an district (宝安 县), the center of which until 1979 was a city with only 30,000 inhabitants, situated on the border with Hong Kong. In March 1979, the central government decided together with the provincial government of Guangdong from the circle to make a city called Shenzhen. In November of the same year received the Shenzhen municipal rights and was therefore directly responsible to the provincial government.
Establishment and expansion of the Special Economic Zone
Shenzhen is located in the Pearl River Delta and on the border with the Chinese special administrative region of Hong Kong. This convenient location was the reason that under Deng Xiaoping in Shenzhen, the first Special Economic Zone of China was formed in May 1980, also to benefit, among others, the economic development of Hong Kong. Deng's slogan in connection with the city of Shenzhen was " Let in the West Wind. Wealth is glorious. " This aptly describes what should happen in the city in the coming years, an extreme construction boom, as he is rarely seen in China.
Shenzhen developed adjacent to Guangzhou and already beyond it to the largest city in the Pearl River Delta, which is seen adjacent to the Beijing- Tianjin region and the Yangtze River Delta as one of the most economically important regions of China. Since many companies are active throughout the province of Guangdong in the manufacturing sector, the region was the first, which was often referred to in the media as the " workshop of the world ".
The special economic zone reached by 2009 a size of 396 square kilometers and thus already exceeding many times the original plans from 1980. In 2009, the city government drew up a plan for further enlargement, which was confirmed by the State Council of China. Accordingly, from July 1, 2010, the municipalities Bao'an and Longgang were included and five times with a size of 1,953 square kilometers in the Special Economic Zone.
Relations between Hong Kong and Shenzhen
With a total area of about 3300 km ² and together about 19 million people of Hong Kong and Shenzhen, ahead of Guangzhou, the most important cities in the Pearl River Delta economic region. In the time of the founding of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, the city benefited greatly from the economic development of the former British colony of Hong Kong, which is considered one of the most liberal market economies in the world. Comparing the two cities today, the narrow sea from Hong Kong its strengths in services, logistics and marketing.
Shenzhen, however, which has grown in recent decades become one of the largest metropolitan cities in China, has huge capacity and a large " pool of talent ". The city serves Hong Kong, for example, even with everyday goods such as fruits, vegetables and poultry and also supplies the town with electricity since the current demand can not be fully covered by power plants in Hong Kong. In addition, the " Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement" (CEPA ) signed between Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland, which reinforces the economic relations between the two cities.
Figures from 2003 indicate that 75 % of companies ( 9000 companies) are financed with foreign capital in Shenzhen from Hong Kong. In addition, many Hong Kong commute between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, where they work, because the cost of living is much lower in Shenzhen. For 2003, there were about 50,000 flats in Shenzhen owned by Hong Kong residents.
- United States Houston, United States since March 1986
- Italy Brescia, Italy, since November 1991
- Australia Brisbane, Australia since June 1992
- Poland Poznan, Poland, since July 1993
- Jamaica Kingston, Jamaica, since March 1995
- France Vienne, France, in April 1996
- Togo Lome, Togo, June 1996
- Germany Nuremberg, Germany, since May 1997
- Belgium Walloon Brabant, Belgium, October 2003
- Japan Tsukuba, Japan, in June 2004
- Malaysia Johor Bahru, Malaysia, July 2006
- Italy Turin, Italy, in January 2007
- Romania Timişoara, Romania, February 2007
- United Kingdom Rotherham, United Kingdom, since November 2007
- United States Reno, United States, since April 2008
Economy and infrastructure
In 2001 there were in Shenzhen 3.3 million working people. Of these, 1.85 million people were employed in the secondary sector and the tertiary sector (services ) was employer for 1.4 million people. In 2009, the gross domestic product amounted to 820.1 billion yuan from Shenzhen (equivalent to about 96 billion euros ), representing a growth of 66 % over 2005. The economy in the city grew between 2001 and 2005 an annual average of 16.3%. The gross domestic product in 2009 was the fourth highest of the cities of mainland China. In 2011, the gross domestic product rose to 1.15 trillion yuan.
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is adjacent to the Shanghai Stock Exchange, the second largest stock market of mainland China.
Shenzhen is home to some of the most successful Chinese high-tech companies such as BYD, Dingoo, Hasee, Huawei, Tencent, Xunlei or ZTE. In addition, many foreign IT companies have offices in the city. This includes for example the world's largest electronics manufacturer Foxconn, which in the district of Longhua with more than 300,000 employees in the so-called "iPod City" among other iPods for Apple and components for Sony, Nintendo and Hewlett -Packard manufactures.
International Shenzhen is known among others by the artists' village of Dafen, where several companies have specialized in copies of the classics of European art and design history.
Road and rail transport
The right on the border to Hong Kong in Luohu ( Cantonese: Lo Wu ) railway station is the starting point for many rail services within China. It may come from Hong Kong residents ( Hong Kong Chinese ) can be achieved directly with the KCR and is often used to go shopping in cheaper Shenzhen. Also trains from Hong Kong, by for example moving to Guangzhou. From Shenzhen, there are also high-traffic connections to Guangzhou or other destinations in China, such as the fast " Long -Distance " trains to Beijing 18 hours driving time. For these long-distance trains both tickets with seat reservations are offered as well as without. This " standing tickets " are significantly cheaper, but the trains are crowded accordingly.
On 1 July 2007, the " Hong Kong - Shenzhen Western Corridor " was privy to a lake about 4770 m long cable-stayed bridge with six lanes, which connects the district with the Nanshan District Yuen Long in the northwest of Hong Kong across the separating Deep Bay. On both sides a combined toll and customs station each to pass through. The capacity is given as 58,600 vehicles a day and 60,000 people.
Shenzhen has since 28 December 2004 on a further located in building underground, the Shenzhen Metro (MTR ), making it to Beijing, Hong Kong, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the sixth Chinese city with such a transport. Currently there are five lines in operation.
For getting around the city taxis can be used. They cost at least 10 RMB up to 2 km and 0.60 RMB for each additional 0.25 km. From a driving distance of 20 km and in time 22-6 clock, a surcharge will be levied. On many street corners and other public places e-bikes can be rented for 2 people for 10 RMB also as "black taxi ". Since they do not have a taximeter, the penalty for long rides is subject to negotiation.
In addition, the very well-developed inner-city bus network can be used. Ferriere goals, such as Guangzhou, Dongguan, Humen or Xiamen, can be achieved with remote buses that stop in a bus terminal below the Lo Wu Commercial City near the Hong Kong border and arrive. There are other more remote bus stations such as the Transportation Hub in Futian district.
The Shenzhen Baoan International Airport is the fourth largest in mainland China airport, which is 35km north-west from the city center in the district of Bao'an. He uses many internal Chinese targets as well as some international destinations. Compared to the international airport of Hong Kong, he is usually cheaper for flights within China. He has developed into a major hub for air cargo and passenger flights within China. In addition, the airport is the hub of US-based passenger airline Shenzhen Shenzhen Airlines and freight airline Jade Cargo International.
The airport is expanded to include a new runway and another 1300 meter terminal by the year 2012. He is so open world in the passenger area with a capacity of around 40 million / year to the most important airports.
Shenzhen has several container terminals: Yantian, Shekou and Chiwan are the most important. In Yantian International Container Terminal (盐田 国际 集装箱 码头), the largest of the terminals, eleven container ships can be handled simultaneously by the continued expansion in total 15 in 2006 8.865 million TEUs were handled here. In Chiwan Container Terminal (赤湾 集装箱 码头) can be loaded and unloaded up to nine ships at the same time, it had in 2006 a turnover of 5 million TEUs. The Shekou Container Terminals (蛇口 集装箱 码头) be able to handle a maximum of six container ships. Another investor in 2007 was still under construction. 2005 a total of 2.664 million TEUs were handled at these container terminals.
In addition, there are other container terminals in Mawan, Dongjiaotou, Fuyong, Xiadong, Shayuchong and Neihe. Taken together, their container terminals in Shenzhen to Shanghai in 2009, the second highest turnover rise of China and Shanghai, Singapore and Hong Kong, the fourth highest in the world. The volume of container traffic in Shenzhen here is grown much faster in recent years than the amount of containers handled in Hong Kong.
One way to get to Hong Kong are the Jetfähren that every hour from Hong Kong Iceland, Kowloon (Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal) and the Hong Kong Airport to Shekou ( Shenzhen) and Fuyong ( Shenzhen Airport ) run.
Overall in Shenzhen are 30 buildings that are higher than 200 meters. They are particularly at night with the other buildings in the city an imposing skyline. Tallest building in the city is 442 meters which opened in 2011 Kingkey 100 The currently zweithöste building Shun Hing Square, at an altitude of about 300 meters, a publicly accessible floor with 360 ° view across Shenzhen. Currently second highest building in the world working in Shenzhen on the future, the Pingan International Finance Center (see list of the tallest skyscrapers ).
Dafen artist village
Dafen (大 芬 社区) is a community inhabitants in the city Longgang District. This village developed in recent years into the largest workshop for copied oil paintings.
Tropical Island Nei Ling Ding Dao
Nei Ling Ding Dao (内 伶仃 岛) is part of the road district in the city Shekou Nanshan District. On the island in the Pearl River Delta is a large nature reserve with South Asian tropical forests and numerous macaques.
Recreation and Sports
Together with the Mission Hills Golf Club, the largest golf course in the world has arisen on the since 2007, the World Cup the professional golfer is discharged.
Shenzhen hosted the Summer Universiade in 2011.
- The Minsk World (明思克 世界) is a military theme park in the Dapeng Bay in Shatoujiao. Among other things, is in the opened on 10 May 2000 the park rebuilt as a tourist attraction flight deck cruiser Minsk the Soviet and later the Russian Navy.
- The Happy Valley is a theme park with roller coasters and many other rides. Close to the parks Window of the World, in which more than one hundred architectural and natural attractions from around the world (Coliseum, Eiffel Tower, Matterhorn etc. ) are replicated on a small scale at 48 hectares lying, and Splendid China (锦绣 中华) in the miniatures of many Chinese tourist attractions (such as the Great Wall of China ) are modeled to scale. Happy Valley, Window of the World and Splendid China are all in the immediate area in Futian district of the city.
- OCT EAST: The OCT EAST (East Overseas Chinese Town ), a 9 km ² large recreational park on the seafront in Yantian district. There are various European decorated villages, a ski lift, a golf course, a golf driving range. In the theater of OCT East Village " Interlaken " is also currently the largest LED video display of China, which serves as a backdrop for the daily taking place there show on the topic of "tea".
- Entertainment district, SeaWorld: No theme park, but is trained thematically the small entertainment district Sea World in Shekou district. At the waterline wakes a giant statue of the Sea Goddess Wa and away inland, the 180 m long former passenger ship " Minghua " waiting for sightseeing and dining. The surrounding streets are a melange of St. Pauli, Amsterdam and Marseille. Next to it is a golf course, the Chinese, like the small-scale confusion, the district is not as sterile as many parts of the plan 's Shenzhen City.
Station seen from the Lo Wu Commercial City of
Convention & Exhibition Center
Dongmen shopping area
Shenzhen City Hall
Amusement park " Window of the World "
View of Hong Kong from the Futian district