The exact date of birth and the birthplace of Joseph Neville are not known. He grew up during the British colonial era and made his first start of the 1770s politically in appearance. Between 1773 and 1777 he was a member of the County Council of Hampshire County in present-day West Virginia. He joined the American Revolution and in the years 1775 and 1776 Delegate to freedom meetings. During the Revolutionary War he served in the Continental Army. Between 1777 and 1782 he was several times in the House of Representatives from Virginia. Later he was a member of a commission established the disputed border between the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania.
Politically, Neville was an opponent of the then Federal Government under President George Washington ( Anti- Administration Group ). In the congressional elections of 1792, he was elected in the third electoral district of Virginia in the time which meets even in Philadelphia U.S. House of Representatives, where he became the successor of Andrew Moore on March 4, 1793. Since he resigned in 1794 to run again, he was able to complete only one term in Congress until March 3, 1795.
After the end of his time in the U.S. House of Representatives Joseph Neville is no longer politically have appeared. He died on March 4, 1819 in Hardy County, in what is now West Virginia.