In 1927 won the Belgian Jean Aerts Amateur Championship, then he was in the discharged on the Nürburgring road Cycling World champion in the amateurs. At the World Cup, he was however not nominated by his association and traveled at their own expense. In 1928 he was at the road world championships of the Amateur by third parties. In the same year he competed in the Olympic Games in Amsterdam, finishing in eleventh place in the road race and the team finished fourth. He also started in the 1000 -meter time trial on the track, but was eliminated early.
1930 could Aerts, now as a professional, winning for the first time in the Tour de France a stage, namely, the sixth of Les Sables d' Olonne to Bordeaux. In 1932 he won a stage and wore the yellow jersey for one day, in 1933, he was ninth of the tour overall. In 1931, he won the Radfernfahrt Paris -Brussels and two years later, the Tour of Belgium. What he succeeded in 1927 with the amateurs, he made up for with the pros in 1935, and here he was able to win the world title. In 1936, he won together with Camille Dekuysscher rail competition Prix Dupré - Lapize in Paris. Late in his career drove Aerts also Six days and Stayers race and has twice been Belgian champion stayer.
Jean Aerts was a nephew of the cyclist Emile Aerts.