Soyuz TM-2

Soyuz TM-2 is the mission name for the flight of a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft to the Soviet space station Mir. It was the second visit of a Soyuz spacecraft with the Mir space station and the 78th flight in the Soviet Sojusprogramm.


Start crew

  • Yuri Viktorovich Romanenko ( third space flight), Commander
  • Alexander Ivanovich Lawejkin ( first space flight), flight engineer


  • Vladimir Titov Georgjewitsch, Commander
  • Alexander Alexandrovich Serebrov, Flight Engineer

Originally Titov and Serebrov were provided for this flight while Romanenko and Lawejkin were the backup crew. Due to health problems of Serebrov the crew had to be replaced.

Return crew

  • Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko ( first space flight), Commander
  • Alexander Ivanovich Lawejkin ( first space flight), flight engineer
  • Muhammed Ahmed Faris (Syria Syria) ( first space flight )

Mission overview

The second resident crew of space station Mir Rendezvous used in the new approach system course in which the space station maintains its orientation in space, and no longer aligns to the coupling partner back. Coupling was carried out again after two days of flight, which lets the astronauts more time to adapt to weightlessness and an approximately 50% fuel savings.

On board the station extensive scientific research has been carried out. These included geophysical surveys over Central Asia, the Caspian lowlands and the Caucasus, spectral analysis, the production of new semiconductor materials with the system corundum 1M ( 48 different experiments ) as well as extensive Erdfotografie. The end of March launched space station module Kwant ( 11 t mass and 5.8 m length) docked on April 11 at the second attempt at the station after the first attempt due to low set fault tolerance had been automatically canceled. To remove a foreign body from the coupling unit, the cosmonauts left the station for three hours and 40 minutes on the same day. Then the electrolysis system was taken to the oxygenation in operation and enhanced astronomical research carried out. Further experiments related to medical studies, research on the evaporation of liquids, the production of metal alloys ( eg copper and silver), the growth of higher plants in the terrarium Phyton and rust as well as the installation of a multi-channel spectrometer and a photometer for astrophysical experiments. With them, among other things, the supernova 1987A and neutron stars have been put under the microscope. Two were more exits the expansion station by a grating structure ( 1:53 ), and the mounting of additional segments (24 meters) in the third solar cell surface ( 3:15 ). In addition, maintenance has been carried out and 27 to 30 taken the supply of transport spacecraft Progress in reception. With the guest crew also scientific experiments were carried out. Alexander Lawejkin returned because of health problems already to earth prematurely and was replaced by Alexander Alexandrov.

After the crew change over 1000 astrophysical, geophysical, technological, medical and biological experiments were performed. This included the study of X-ray sources (including a newly discovered galaxy ), the measurement of high-energy electron and positron currents as well as the investigation of processes during melting and crystallization of various materials with a mirror - beam furnace. Were studied as cosmic influences on new construction materials and heat insulation for spacecraft. In addition, a polyacrylamide gel was synthesized, which is used in the production of biologically active substances. The transport spacecraft Progress were discharged 31 to 33 to supply. The station was handed over to the relief crew in December. The old crew returned with Soyuz TM -3 back to Earth. After nearly eleven months in space, Yuri Romanenko held the sole long-duration flight record for almost a year.