Soyuz TM-11

Soyuz TM -11 mission is the designation for the flight of a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft to the Soviet space station Mir. It was the eleventh visit to a Soyuz spacecraft with the Mir space station and the 87th flight in the Soviet Sojusprogramm.


Start crew

  • Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev ( first space flight), Commander
  • Mussa Chiramanowitsch Manarov ( second space flight), flight engineer
  • Toyohiro Akiyama ( first space flight), Reporter ( Japan Japan)

Backup crew

  • Anatoli Pavlovich Artsebarsky, Commander
  • Sergei Konstantinovich Krikaljow, Flight Engineer
  • Ryoko Kikuchi, Reporter ( Japan Japan)

Return team

  • Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev ( first space flight), Commander
  • Mussa Chiramanowitsch Manarov ( second space flight), flight engineer
  • Helen Patricia Sharman ( first space flight), Wissenschaftskosmonautin (United Kingdom United Kingdom)

Mission overview

Toyohiro Akiyama was the first space tourist, who was allowed to fly against payment into space. Akiyama's employer, the transmitter Tokyo Broadcasting System ( TBS), paid 28 million dollars for the flight. The start trim and the Soyuz boosters were painted with the Japanese flag and advertising. A camera in the descent module filmed the cosmonauts on arrival for the Japanese stations.

The Soviet Union called it the first commercial space flight and announced that they thus earned 14 million U.S. dollars. The journalist had a daily ten-minute TV broadcast and 20 minutes of radio reports to send. Incompatibilities of the electrical systems and video equipment forced him to use many converters. His equipment weighed about 170 kilograms and had been brought on a Progress cargo space ship by Manakov and Strelakow in advance. On December 5, Akiyama was relocated in the Soyuz TM -10 spacecraft. On December 8, Manakov and Strekalow began to load the descent module with films and experimental results. TBS Akiyama landing filmed live from Kazakhstan.

Before the eighth crew an extensive renovation program was on the Russian space station. Not only that, in the interior of electrical cables have been laid, so that in each module, the total electric power of the solar panels can be used also outboard work was necessary. On January 7 First managed to repair the hatch on Kvant module ( 5:18 ). Then a lattice structure for mounting solar panels were (January 23, 5:04 ) and a crane for converting solar cell makers (January 26, 6:20 ) mounted. On April 25, also an antenna of the automatic approach system price was readjusted ( 3:30 ). The scientific work on board included the areas of earth science, biology, medicine and materials science. Supply came with the transport spacecraft Progress M -6 and M-7 into the station.

The Soyuz spacecraft was docked 175 days on the Mir station.