Soyuz TM-4

Soyuz TM -4 is the mission name for the flight of a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft to the Soviet space station Mir. It was the fourth visit of the Soyuz spacecraft with the Mir space station and the 80th flight in the Soviet Sojusprogramm.


Start crew

  • Vladimir Titov Georgijewitsch ( second space flight), Commander
  • Mussa Chiramanowitsch Manarov ( first space flight), flight engineer
  • Anatoly Semenovich Levchenko ( first space flight ), flight engineer

Titov had already been provided as commander of Soyuz TM-2, but could not be used, so that he was assigned to the next long-duration flight due to the illness of his flight engineer Serebrov.

Backup crew

  • Alexander Alexandrovich Volkov, commander
  • Alexander Jurjewitsch Kaleri, Flight Engineer
  • Alexander Vladimirovich Shchukin, Flight Engineer

Return crew

  • Anatoli Yakovlevich Solovyov ( first space flight ), Commander
  • Viktor Petrovich Savinykh ( first space flight), flight engineer
  • Alexandar Alexandrov Panaiotow ( first space flight), Bulgaria

Mission overview

The third resident crew of space station Mir ( Titov and Manarov ) continued the successful work of their predecessors, while Levchenko returned after a one-week flight to Earth. During this first week flight biological experiments with tea plants, guppies and onions were performed studying the human adaptation to weightlessness, execute a specified exercise training and protein structures produced for medical use, including a super pure anti virus preparation. The tasks of the third root- crew, which included further experiments for Earth observation ( spectral analysis of terrestrial and marine areas for the identification of environmental contamination and for agricultural purposes, including the international aero cosmic research program Tien Shan Intercosmos 88), meteorology, atmospheric science, space technology, physiology, psychology and medicine. Great room also took astronomical research. The plant Marija several series of measurements were carried out on electron and positron currents. Further observations were the constellations Leo and little bear and the Large Magellanic Cloud with the telescopic equipment of the module Kwant. Galvanic coatings were studied as corrosion protection primarily on material scientific field. Also included the breeding of pure semiconductor single crystals on the work program. Also maintenance has been performed at the temperature regulation system, with a vibration experiment examined the stability of the complex and different telescopes readjusted several times and calibrated.

Titov and Manarov worked three times outside the station. On February 26, they exchanged a segment of a solar cell surface ( 4:25 ). On June 30, a detector block at the astrophysical module Kvant should be changed. However, the attempt failed at the first attempt ( 5:10 ).

To supply the cosmonauts transport spacecraft Progress were discharged 34 to 37. Collaborative research has been conducted with the guest crews of space ships Soyuz TM -5 and Soyuz TM-6. A member of the crew of Soyuz TM-6, the physician Valery Polyakov, was incorporated in August in the crew. From this point on, the medical experiments were intensified. For instance, studies of the circulatory system were made, bone and joint changes studied, performed blood analyzes, observed muscle development, explores the relationship of stress, nutrition and weight and doing regular electrocardiograms. The research program was supplemented by psychological tests and investigations for remote sensing of the Earth, atmospheric research (including ozone in the upper atmosphere ) and astronomy. These included observations of supernova 1987A and the constellation Canis Major with the UV telescope Glasar, the measurement of currents of electrically charged elementary particles of high energy in the near-Earth space, the use of the magnetic spectrometer Marija for stargazing as well as the exploration of X-ray sources in the Crab Nebula in the Small Magellanic cloud and in the constellation altar. In addition, the UVS telescope was used to photograph astronomical objects in the constellation Taurus. The plant Birjussa the course of physico- chemical processes could be investigated under the conditions of microgravity. Biochemical research focused on the synthesis of polyacrylic helium. Technological Research ( experiment Wichr ) and agricultural inspection and maintenance (including the water regeneration system of station ) completed the extensive work program.

After delivery of new tools succeeded in another boarding also the dismantling of a detector block at the X-ray telescope of the station. At the same time, preparations were made for further assembly work on the extension of the station ( 4:12 ). A material delivery was made with the automatic transport spacecraft Progress 38 Titov and Manarov returned with the spacecraft Soyuz TM-6 back to Earth, while Polyakov remained with the fourth crew aboard the station. The mission had provided a wide range of research findings at more than 2000 experiments.