Soyuz TM-14

Soyuz TM -14 mission is the designation for the flight of a Russian Soyuz spaceship to the Russian space station Mir. It was the 14th visit of the Soyuz spacecraft with the Mir space station and the 90th flight in the Russian Sojusprogramm.


Start crew

  • Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko ( third space flight), Commander
  • Alexander Jurjewitsch Kaleri ( first space flight ), flight engineer
  • Klaus- Dietrich Flade ( first space flight ), science Cosmonaut ( Germany Germany )

Backup crew

  • Anatoli Yakovlevich Solovyov, commander
  • Sergei Vasilyevich Avdeev, Flight Engineer
  • Reinhold Ewald, Science Cosmonaut ( Germany Germany )

Return team

  • Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko ( third space flight), Commander
  • Alexander Jurjewitsch Kaleri ( first space flight ), flight engineer
  • Michel Tognini ( first space flight ), science Cosmonaut ( Centre national d' études spatiales CNES / France )

Mission overview

This was the first space flight since the collapse of the USSR and thus the first Russian space flight.

The astronaut Klaus- Dietrich Flade flew with the first joint space flight of Russia and Germany into space. Pita was the second German after Sigmund Jähn in 1978, who visited a space station. He made 14 German experiments as part of the preparation for future space station projects, and Columbus in the fields of medicine, biology, physics and materials science. So in the physical test program TES thermodynamic properties of various substances were investigated. Medical examinations related to changes in the genome (chromosome analysis), the sleep-wake rhythm and the assessment of physical and mental performance, the study of the function of the vestibular system and the sense of direction among other things, the recording of eye movements during position changes, the shopping power of short-term memory, the distribution of body fluid in muscles and vessels ( use of the vacuum suit CHIBIS ) and the hormonal regulation of the human organism (blood and saliva sample ). Material Scientific tests consisted mainly in the breeding of pure crystals. Pita landed together with the old crew ( Volkov and Krikaljow ) with the Soyuz TM- 13th

The eleventh resident crew of space station Mir did during her nearly five -month mission experiments for materials research, space technology, astrophysics and earth observation. So they bred super pure Galliumarsenidkristalle with the new plant GARNET aboard the crystal module, observed over a longer period of time, the exact composition of the cabin air and studied the influence of movements of the spaceman on the microgravity. Furthermore, they conducted astronomical observations in ultraviolet and X-ray radiation field. As part of the research program EARTH recordings of North Africa, North and South America, the Pacific, Australia were made with the camera KFA 1000. With the topographic three-channel camera KATE 140 they also made ​​on photographic recordings of parts of Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. In the context of geological investigations in southern Ukraine, the multi- channel spectrometer MKS found 2M ( 19 channels in the wavelength range between 415 nm and 1030 nm) using. Other scientific studies have taken place on the growth of plants for growing crystals, the erosion of different materials by atomic oxygen, living in damage to cells caused by cosmic radiation, the crystallization of biological macromolecules and the influence of artificial gravity. The multispectral camera MKF 6MA high-resolution images of the earth's surface were made. Such recordings statements about environmental pollution, the suspected deposits of certain minerals or harvest predictions are possible. On July 8, Viktorenko and Kaleri up for two hours from the station to two since January defective stabilization gyro on the module Kvant 2 exchange. Supplies and new experimental facilities came with the transport spacecraft Progress M -12 and M-13. When returning from Viktorenko and Kaleri was the Frenchman Tognini on board, who had flown with the successor crew to the station.

On landing, there was a problem, so that the lander came to rest upside down. The capsule had to be rotated by the salvage crew only.