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Heads of State · obituary
Year of the Earth Rat戊子( at the beginning of the year fire - pig丁亥)
Syria: 2079/80 ( year October )
- 3.1 First Quarter
- 3.2 Second Quarter
- 3.3 Third Quarter
- 3.4 Fourth Quarter
- 3.5 Exact date of birth unknown
- 4.1 First half of
- 4.2 Second half of
- 4.3 More death unknown
Politics and World Affairs
Poland / Russia / Ottoman Empire
- FEBRUARY 29: The Bar Confederation was founded endeavored in vain to Poland's independence from Russia.
- March 5: A Silent Sejm, the Repnine Sejm, opts for Russia as a protector of certain rights in Poland. Critics of the anti-Russian Confederation of Bar are kept away from the deliberations.
- September 25: After injury Ottoman territory by a Russian Cossack regiment at Balta explains Sultan Mustafa III. War on Russia. The fifth war between the two empires breaks out. It ends in 1774 for the victorious Russians under Catherine the Great.
Holy Roman Empire
- May 27: The Gottorp contract ends officially over 300 years as part of Hamburg to the Danish -ruled Duchy of Holstein.
- Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony is Archbishop of Trier and at the same time elector. He succeeds the late Johann Philipp von Walderdorff. With Clemens ends in 1803 /06 the long list of electors of Trier.
- Emperor Joseph II founds the Order of St. Joseph.
- December 31: The Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana is set for Austria in force, although it has been rejected by the State Council and the State Chancellery for their backwardness. It's up 1787 into force.
Voyages of discovery
- April 6: Louis Antoine de Bougainville arrives in Tahiti by ship La Boudeuse and adheres to the 16th of April on the island.
- MAY 22: The first French circumnavigator, Count Louis Antoine de Bougainville discovered on his journey the Pentecost Island in the South Pacific.
- August 26: The Endeavour under the command of James Cook begins her first Pacific voyage.
Science and Technology
- December 6: It appears the first volume of the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Joseph Wright of Derby paints the painting The Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump.
- The Royal Academy of Arts is founded by 40 artists under the direction of Joshua Reynolds.
Probably on 7 December will be held the world premiere of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Singspiel Bastien und Bastienne in Schwechat near Vienna. The libretto was written by Friedrich Wilhelm Weiskern, Johann Heinrich Müller and Johann Andreas Schachtner. It is based on Charles Simon Favart, Marie Justine Benoîte Favart and Harny de Guervilles Les amours de Bastien et Bastienne, a parody of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's one-act opera Le devin du village ( The village soothsayer ). The Singspiel consists of an act and is written in German language. Leopold Mozart referred Operetta, for the librettist Weiskern it is " a French Operacomique ". This genre was very fashionable.
In the same year Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed the opera La finta semplice. At the suggestion of Emperor Joseph II, he does so for the first time in the style of opera buffa. The work is due to intrigues, however, until the next year to the performance.
- December 7: In Vienna, the orphanage church is dedicated. For the traditional narrative, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had composed his purpose Waisenhausmesse, but lacking evidence.
Contemporary maps and views
- January 07: Joseph Bonaparte, Neapolitan and Spanish King († 1844)
- January 17: Sebastian Fahrländer, Swiss physician and politician († 1841)
- JANUARY 17: Smith Thompson, American politician and jurist († 1843)
- January 24: Friedrich Erhard Röder, Prussian cavalry general († 1834)
- January 25: Justus Erich Walbaum, German typographer, type founder and engraver († 1839)
- JANUARY 28:. Frederick VI, Danish and Norwegian King († 1839)
- February 01: Alexandre- Jacques- Bernard Law de Lauriston, French general and Marshal of France († 1828)
- 01 February: Charles Tait, American politician († 1835)
- 01 March: Pierre Coudrin, French priest and founder of the Order († 1837)
- March 04: Johann Friedrich Kind, German writer († 1843)
- March 15: Maria Anna Czartoryska, Polish writer († 1854)
- March 21: Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, French mathematician and physicist († 1830)
- March 27: Joseph Schreyvogel, Austrian writer († 1832)
- 02 April: Georg Friedrich Krause, Prussian State Council and Forestry Scientists († 1836)
- April 12: Christopher G. Champlin, American politician († 1840)
- April 14: William of Dörnberg, German General († 1850)
- April 18: Willie Blount, American politician († 1835)
- April 22: David Friedrich Gräter, Württemberg founder of scientific Nordic Studies in Germany († 1830)
- April 23: José Alvarez Cubero, Spanish sculptor († 1827)
- April 23: Friedrich Groos, German physician and philosopher († 1852)
- APRIL 27: Jeremiah Mason, American politician († 1848)
- 03 May: Agustín Eyzaguirre, Chilean President ( † 1837)
- 05 May: Karl Friedrich von Knesebeck, Prussian field marshal († 1848)
- MAY 17: Henry William Paget, British general and statesman († 1854)
- May 25: Kagawa Kageki, Japanese tanka poet († 1843)
- 06 July: Heinrich Backofen, German composer and clarinetist († 1830)
- JULY 20: Franz Anton Schubert, German church composer and instrumentalist at the Catholic Hofkirche Dresden ( † 1824)
- JULY 26: Johann Jacob Ader, German politicians, bankers and social reformer († 1825)
- July 27: Joseph Anton Koch, Austrian painter († 1839)
- 01 August: Karl Ludwig von Haller, Swiss constitutional law († 1854)
- 06 August: Jean -Baptiste Bessières, French general († 1813)
- August 11: Johann Baptist Andres, German historian, theologian, philosopher, and canon (* 1823)
- August 13: Girolamo Amati, Italian philologist, Hellenist, epigraphists, paleograph and handwriting watchers († 1834)
- August 15: Christoph von Schmid, German poet and YA author († 1854)
- August 17: Louis- Charles -Antoine Desaix, French general († 1800)
- August 22: Friedrich Delbrück, Prussian theologian and educator († 1830)
- August 24: Julius von Voss, German writer († 1832)
- August 24: Samuel Paynter, American politician († 1845)
- August 27: Charlotte Corday, French nobleman and assassin († 1793)
- AUGUST 27: Joseph Vitus castle, Hessian Bishop of Mainz ( † 1833)
- September 04: François -René de Chateaubriand, French writer and diplomat († 1848)
- September 06: Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Thym, German Reformed theologian and educator († 1803)
- SEPTEMBER 21: Louis Emmanuel Jadin, French composer and professor († 1853)
- SEPTEMBER 25: Gottfried Mind, Swiss artist ( † 1814)
- October 02: William Carr Beresford, British general and Portuguese marshal († 1854)
- 06 October: Josef Madersperger, Tyrolean master tailor and one of the inventors of the sewing machine († 1850)
- October 06: Samuel C. Crafts, American politician († 1853)
- October 11: Jean -Edouard Adam, French chemist and physicist († 1807)
- October 17: Israel Jacobson, German Jewish reformers († 1828)
- OCTOBER 17: Sophie of Dönhoff, Prussian wife of the King of Prussia ( Frederick William II ) ( † 1838)
- OCTOBER 26: Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz Franciscus, German Lieutenant General and cartographer († 1837)
- October 28: Johannes Daniel Falk, Prussian theologian and writer († 1826)
- OCTOBER 31: Juan Egaña Risco, Chilean President ( † 1836)
- OCTOBER 31: Simon Moritz von Bethmann, German banker († 1826)
- November 01: Christopher Ellery, American politician († 1840)
- November 02: Carl Bonaventura Witzka, German composer and a Catholic theologian († 1848)
- November 13: Bertel Thorvaldsen, Danish sculptor († 1844)
- November 18: Zacharias Werner, German playwright († 1823)
- November 21: Friedrich Schleiermacher, Silesian Protestant theologian and philosopher († 1834)
- November 24: Georg Friedrich Rebmann, German publicist ( † 1824)
- November 26: Ferdinand of Bubna and Littitz, Austrian field marshal lieutenant († 1825)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Conrad Christoph von Ahlefeldt, inheritance and court gentleman from ash Mountain, Chamberlain, land and Drosselmeier luck in town and monastery provost of Uetersen († 1853)
- Elder Leonid, Russian monk and pastor († 1841)
First half year
- January 02: Johann Simonis German Protestant theologian and orientalist (* 1698 )
- March 01: Hermann Samuel Reimarus, Prussian pioneers of scientific biblical criticism (* 1694 )
- March 03: Nicola Antonio Porpora, Italian composer and singing teacher (* 1686)
- MARCH 18: Laurence Sterne, British writer (* 1713)
- 09 April: Sarah Fielding, English writer and translator (* 1710)
- APRIL 14: François de Cuvilliés the Elder, French - German builder (* 1690)
- APRIL 19: Giovanni Antonio Canal, called Canaletto, an Italian landscape painter (* 1697 )
- APRIL 24: Johann Valentin Tischbein, Thuringian painter in Laubach, Maastricht, The Hague, Hildburghausen (* 1715 )
- May 06: Conrad Nahmmacher, German Protestant theologian and educator (* 1734)
- May 25: Siegfried Cäso of Aeminga, German jurist (* 1710)
- 08 June: Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German archaeologist and writer on art (* 1717)
- 24 June: Johann Julius Hecker, Prussian theologian and founder of the practice-oriented Realschule ( * 1707)
- 24 June: Maria Leszczyńska, French wife of the French King Louis XV. (* 1703)
- June 28: George Hadley, English physicist and meteorologist (* 1685)
Second half- year
- July 04: Johann Gottfried Borlach, Saxon Bergrat (* 1687 )
- July 11: José de Nebra, Spanish composer (* 1702)
- July 14: James Short, a British mathematician, optician and telescope Bauer ( * 1710)
- December 08: Jean Denis Attiret, French Jesuit missionary and painter (* 1702)
- December 13: Johann Christoph von Dreyhaupt, German historian (* 1699)