Abraham Rencher was formed first at home and then in the public schools in Pittsboro. Until 1822, he then studied at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. After a subsequent law degree, he was admitted in 1825 as a lawyer. Then he began to work in Pittsboro in this profession.
Between March 4, 1829 to March 3, 1839, he represented his North Carolina State in the U.S. House of Representatives. Initially the Democratic-Republican party belonging, he then went first to the National Republican Party over later to the Whigs. After an interruption in 1839-1841, he returned again for two years from 1841 to 1843 as a Whig to this body back. Subsequently, he was from 1843 to 1847 as the successor of Washington Barrow American ambassador in Portugal.
In 1857, Abraham Rencher was appointed by President James Buchanan as the new territorial governor of New Mexico. This office he held until 1861. After a period of calm before taking office, the conflict with the native Indians increased again at this time. Especially the members of the Diné - people were very disturbed by the construction of Fort Defiance, built on their territory. In the result, there were raids on settlers and in May 1860 even on the fort itself, which was not taken. Then reinforced the U.S. Army its military presence in New Mexico. At the end of the Diné was in a reservation forcibly relocated ( Long March ( Diné ) ).
Abraham Renchers tenure in New Mexico ended in 1861. Afterwards, he returned to North Carolina. He has not been active politically. He spent his retirement on his estate in Pittsboro. Abraham Rencher died in July 1883 in Chapel Hill.