Tesla Motors

  • Tesla Roadster
  • Tesla Model S
  • Tesla Model XVorlage: Infobox Company / Maintenance / products

Tesla Motors, Inc. is a US-based company that designs electric cars and electric drive components and builds. The company is located in Palo Alto, in Silicon Valley. The company employs approximately 3,000 employees in late 2012. The series production of the first model, the two-seater sports car Tesla Roadster began on March 17, 2008. Tesla is currently the only vehicle manufacturer that has sold an emission-free production sports cars in larger numbers. At the moment, Tesla produces a pure electric premium sedan, the Model S, which will be built in Fremont ( California). Tesla sold to Daimler and Toyota, among others, various components for the electric drive trains.

  • 6.1 Project
  • 6.2 Cost advantage
  • 6.3 Additional markets outside the automotive sector
  • 7.1 Headquarters and Factory
  • 7.2 EU
  • 7.3 Sales and Service Center concept
  • 8.1 Daimler
  • 8.2 Toyota
  • 8.3 Panasonic
  • 8.4 Sixt Leasing


Namesake of Tesla Motors is the physicist and inventor Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Roadster uses a three-phase induction motor as a motor, the origin of which is situated in a developed in 1882 by Nikola Tesla design. In the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, especially advanced by Nikola Tesla, the development of electric vehicles was far advanced before the fossil-fueled vehicles gained the upper hand. The longer range, due to the cheap fuel for internal combustion engines, the first era of electric mobility finished.

The company Tesla Motors was founded in 2003 by Elon Musk, Martin Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning, Jeffrey B. Straubel and Ian Wright with the aim to build electric cars for the general public. The Tesla Roadster, since 2008 on the market, was the first automobile, uses lithium - ion batteries and achieved on a single charge has a range of over 340 km. 2009, a sports version was released.

A total of around 2250 Roadsters were sold. Since mid-2012, a sedan, Model S sold in the U.S.. Since mid- 2013, the Model S is available in Europe. It has up to seven seats.

For the production of the Roadster, Tesla Motors was still dependent on Lotus Cars, who produced the chassis and the body. The Model S is the first domestic production of Tesla Motors and is built exclusively in Fremont.

Corporate strategy

One of the main objectives specify the founders of Tesla Motors to make electric vehicles available for the average consumer. The Tesla Roadster with the limited edition of 2500 pieces for a purchase price of 100,000 € not yet fulfilled this criterion. In the Model S, the price is in the United States at mid-height; in Germany the starting price is 71,400 euros .. In addition to this endeavor is the development of fast charging stations in Germany in 2014 increase sharply to reach a 100% coverage to the end of the year.

History and Finance

End of 2003, two independent teams had found the one Martin Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning and Ian Wright, on the other Elon Musk and JB Straubel, who were inspired by the prototype of the T -Zero and wanted to bring together a commercial electric car. The T -Zero was the basis for one's own concept, an electric sports car, which was developed by AC Propulsion.

Since college, it has been the target of Musk to commercialize electric vehicles so far that they can be offered for the wide customer requirements. He wanted to start with a sports car for early adopters. In the next step of development, the concept should be transformed into mainstream models, such as a sedan, before it would be affordable for a broad clientele, for example in the form of a compact car. Musk takes the most active role in the company, particularly in the field of design. He originated the idea to provide the car with a carbon fiber sheath; he is responsible for the design of the modules of the drive up to the light with you.

Musk has a financial interest in Tesla Motors; he has the profit from other products in the company re-invested. The commitment in the green technology has the company been introduced several awards, most recently the Stevie Award.

End of 2008, Tesla Motors was close to bankruptcy, but was saved at the last minute by the investor Dibalog. Tesla Motors is also since then depend on a number of investors, including Toyota, Daimler and many individuals who believe in the future of the electric car or use the technology for their own products. Overall, Tesla had 2010 sales of 116.7 million U.S. dollars. Nevertheless, Tesla had to accept losses in 2011 of about 40 million U.S. dollars. It was only from 2013 black numbers are expected when the planned production of 20,000 Tesla Tesla Model S sold.

The IPO end of June 2010 was successful. The share since grown from $ 17 to $ meantime up to 145 per share. The output value of the volume of the IPO amounted to $ 226 million and now stands at over U.S. $ 100 million more. In 2005, the cooperation with Lotus began to produce the body of the Tesla Roadster. The similarity of the roadster with the Lotus Elise is therefore to be understood. The contract was extended until the end of 2011, before in 2012 the first own complete production could be made. By the end of 2011 Roadster have been produced in about 2250 Tesla.

2012 Tesla Motors earned on sales of 413 million dollars a net loss of 396 million U.S. dollars.

One after an accident fallen into fire Tesla S led in October 2013 to a temporary price decline of the share of 12 percent (corresponding to a virtual drop in the stock market value to $ 3 billion ). However, the stock had already risen by 400 percent since the beginning. Also, vehicle fires are more likely than in conventional vehicles.


Current Models: Model S

Discontinued product models: Roadster

Studies: Model X

Tesla Roadster

July 24, 2006 Tesla Motors introduced the Roadster after three years of development, the first time to a selected audience. The two-seater sports car is powered by an electric motor in the rear, the (288 PS) acts on the rear wheels with a maximum of 205 kW over an input gear. One walk is enough, because electric motors in the vehicle drive unlike piston engines develop their maximum torque at the first turn and the engine to 14,000 rpm running.

The power source consists of 6,831 commercially available lithium -ion laptop batteries with a storage volume of about 53 kilowatt hours that are delivered at a voltage of 375 volts to the motor. In the lithium ion batteries are the type 18650, several billion are produced by the each year. Each battery pack is 65 mm long and has a diameter of 18 mm. The whole package weighs about 450 batteries from 6831 kg. Each battery has two fuses, one at the anode and cathode. The entire battery pack is cooled by a mixture of water and glycol.

At a speed of 97 km / h the vehicle accelerates in 3.9 seconds ( corresponding to a time of 4.02 seconds to 100 km / h). On the basis of the official American driving cycle, the manufacturer promises a radius of 340 km. The charging time is given as 3.5 hours.

Even faster than the Tesla Roadster is the sports model of the vehicle with an acceleration 0-97 km / h in 3.7 instead of 3.9 seconds. The Roadster Sport is available since 2009 and could be acquired as the Roadster 2.5 only until the end of 2011. From the end of 2011, the cooperation with Lotus was set.

Tesla Model S

A sedan was developed under the code name "White Star" by a corporate branch in Detroit. After completion of the development work later 25,000 vehicles of the model year were in Fremont first 10,000 produced. There is a sale price of U.S. citizens by $ 63,570 announced after a federal environmental premium for all-electric cars of $ 7,500 from the original price ( $ 71,070 ) is deducted. The model came under the name of Tesla Model S on the market. A concept car of the model was presented on 26 March 2009 in Hawthorne, California and in September 2009 at the IAA in Frankfurt to the public.

The Model S is the first production of Tesla Motors. The sporty sedan has 5 seats plus two optional child seats. It is characterized by significantly more interior space than the Roadster. Tesla produces two versions with a range of up to 500 kilometers. The charging time is approximately 3 hours. In addition, Tesla Motors has started the construction of so-called " Super Chargern ", which will be built in the U.S. and Europe itineraries and charge the Model S in around 40 minutes on 80%. The Model S is a competing product to the 7-Series from BMW and the S- Class from Mercedes- Benz dar.

Tesla Model X

Mid-2010 announced that Tesla Motors and Toyota, the Toyota RAV4 EV to develop the second generation; in September 2012 was the model for the American market. Tesla wants an SUV in 2014, the Model X market. First, however, the Model S is in the foreground.

Battery concept

Tesla seeks high energy density, unproblematic Nachladeverhalten and affordable cost. High energy density and unproblematic Nachladeverhalten be achieved today (2014 ), mainly of lithium - ion batteries. Your price is high but the handling and due to the high energy density difficult.

Basis of the energy storage system of Tesla lithium -ion cylindrical cells in the size of the form factor 18650th It is cylinder with 18 mm diameter and 65 mm length. This size was already a billion times produced for laptops. The round cells in which the active layers are wound inexpensive, costing between 190-200 dollars per kWh in 2014. However, the cost for large-sized cells whose active layers are consuming stacked or folded lie, as they are used by other manufacturers, in the order of 240-250 U.S. dollars per kWh.

Tesla includes each of the round cells in a steel housing that can dissipate the heat generated during charging and discharging effect. The account of the smallness of the cells relatively large surface area allows the delivery of accumulated heat to the surroundings and makes the cell isothermal. The small size of the individual cell also allows precise control of the charge and discharge of the overall package, and allows to avoid overloading, which increases the lifetime of the individual cells.

When the battery pack of the Roadster, for example, 69 cells were wired in parallel to a block. 69 blocks were connected in series for layers, and 11 layers have been added to the kit housing. Overall, thus creating a set of 6,831 cells. The battery pack weighed about 408 kg and stored 56 kWh of electrical energy and delivered up to 215 kW of electrical power. For effective heat transfer from each cell coolant was pumped through the set. The cooling system was so effective that the cells on opposite sides of the battery pack had only a temperature difference of a few degrees. Cooling requires energy, but caused optimum operating temperature and was in addition to the individual control of the cells based on the achievement of a long service life of the cells. In the cooling system of the package sensors are mounted in order to allow an optimal control of the cooling and optimal temperatures. In the cold, the system is used for heating of the reversed cell. The whole pack is surrounded by a sturdy steel casing.

Tesla Gigafactory

Tesla is planning a factory for lithium -ion cells and battery packs, which will provide up to 2020, about 500,000 electric cars with low-cost battery packs. It is part of a strategy to build electric cars for the general public. According to Tesla, the U.S. states of Texas, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico are eligible as a location. The aim is to reduce costs by 30 percent compared to today's cost prices by the year 2017.

The estimated 4-5 billion dollar project in which Tesla plans to invest $ 2 billion, is approximately 6,500 persons employed. The factory floor space is estimated to be ~ 1 square kilometer ( 10 million ft ²), it should be 2-4 square kilometers acquired ( 500 to 1,000 acres) of land. The project includes plants producing renewable energy such as solar panels and wind turbines.


To reduce costs and to enable planned production increases, Tesla plans to produce in the new factory from 2020 annual individual cells with a capacity of 35 GWh and battery packs with a total capacity of 50 GWh. The planned production would thus be greater than the total world production in 2013.

Cost advantage

A study by the consulting firm Roland Berger and the Society of Automotive Engineering Aachen estimates that the planned factory could further increase the cost advantage of round cell massively. Economies of scale in overhead costs, investments, and lower energy costs could, according to the study, the cost of production of the cell by 30-35 dollars per kWh (corresponding to about 40-45 %) and the material cost of the cell by 10 % to 12 % (up to $ 10 lower per kWh). Overall, the cost advantage of round cells would increase compared to large-sized cells by about 40-45 dollars per kWh.

Additional markets outside the automotive sector

The service manager for renewable energy Solar City has been around for 2013 industrial enterprises battery packs from Tesla to store energy. This allows industrial companies, for example, reduce their price performance against their electricity supplier.

The California Public Utilities Commission, the California regulatory authority for electricity suppliers, aims in California in 2020, a current storage capacity of 1.3 gigawatts be available that to supply enough electricity to 993 750 typical houses with electricity.


Headquarters and Factory

The headquarters of Tesla Motors in Palo Alto (USA). The foundation of the company was held in Silicon Valley, a region south of San Francisco, in which very many technologically advanced companies have settled.

In West Los Angeles, 2008, the first store was opened, followed by another in Menlo Park, and many more over the course of the following year. 2011, there were already 18 worldwide, most of them in the U.S. and Europe. In August 2009, Palo Alto was chosen as the future headquarters. Is the former car factory of Nummi (New United Motor Manufacturing ), the Tesla has bought for 42 million U.S. $ from Toyota and since May 2010 is officially production site of Tesla Motors on site. Nummi is located in Fremont, close to the headquarters, so the location is ideal for Tesla Motors. Currently just over 1000 employees working at Tesla, the long term should be created up to 10,000 jobs. Due to the increasing production of the model S ( 5000 in 2012, about 20,000 a year later ) and an extension of the product range, the company will continue to grow. The work was previously used by Toyota and General Motors joint venture Nummi, before it was shut down after its bankruptcy.


The European headquarters is located in Maidenhead, near London, England. The seat of the former main partner, Lotus, is also to be found in England. In June 2009, the first point of sale of Tesla was opened in Europe in London, each followed by a showroom in Munich and Monaco. Since 2010, there are other shops in Zurich, Copenhagen, Paris and Milan. Tesla representatives without own shop can be found in the Netherlands, Oslo, Vienna, Hamburg, Frankfurt and Madrid.

Marketing concept and Service Center

Tesla operates its showrooms and stores itself in Europe, there are around ten, there are more to come. The service stations are to be further developed. Every 20,000 km or one year, a service check may be carried out, customers are visiting the mobile service teams outside the regional showrooms and workshops. An advantage of the electric vehicle is its low maintenance requirement, as the battery packs should be replaced after seven to ten years or 160,000 kilometers and a lot less wear and tear are installed. Tesla, with its mobile customer to a service that includes both the maintenance, and software updates. A special case relates to the factory warranty of Tesla, which itself remains valid if the customer does not lets you perform the proposed service checks.

In April 2011, the new sales concept of Tesla was unveiled in Santa Monica. The design studio enables the customer to make his Roadster own ideas, to see the final product and to share with other customers. Part of the concept is to bring the customers developed by Tesla technologies closer, so as to generate a greater understanding of the product.



Since 2007, Tesla is working with Daimler AG, after Elon Musk had convinced the German company bosses of his concept, he had rebuilt by a Smart into a functioning electric vehicle. Then Tesla was awarded the contract for the drive components of the Smart ForTwo. In London there was a series of experiments with 100 vehicles with Tesla drives. Tesla produced battery packs and powertrains for over 2000 electric Smarts. For the mass production of electric Smart cars, Daimler employs a battery of German ACCUmotive and one electric drive of EM-motive. Tesla produced the battery pack and the drive train for the B-Class Electric Drive, which will come on the market in 2014.


Since May 2010 there has been cooperation between Tesla and Toyota, which began with the sale of Nummi in Tesla. Further financial support of the large corporation is konditionalisiert, depending on joint projects. In addition to electronic drive trains, vehicles and other components are to be developed jointly, such as the Toyota RAV4, which has already gone into production.


Also in 2010, the partnership with Panasonic has been launched to promote the development of specific lithium -ion batteries for the automotive industry. This Panasonic has no monopoly on Tesla, the collaboration focuses more on the research and development of new products.

Sixt Leasing

Tesla and Sixt Leasing announce joint.