The district of North Friesland ( Low German: Noord Freeland, Danish North Frisland, Frisian: Nordfraschlönj / Nordfriislon / Nuurdfriisklun ) is the northernmost district of Germany. Relative to its surface, he is the third largest district of Schleswig -Holstein. At the same time North Frisia is home to the minorities of the North Frisians and Danes. With the same five in the district traditionally spoken languages ( German, Low German, Danish, and North Frisian Südjütisch ) North Frisia is the language- the wealthiest district of Germany.
The circle is not identical to the cultural and geographical region of North Friesland, which includes the historical settlement area of the immigrant here Friesen and about one-third smaller than the area of today's circle, but in addition also comprises the political to the circle Pinneberg island of Heligoland.
He is also to be distinguished from the district of Friesland in the north-west of Lower Saxony.
- 3.1 District Administrators
- 3.2 Kreistag
- 3.3 Other significant political offices
- 3.4 Coat of Arms and Flag
- 3.5 partnerships
- 4.1 Political circle map
- 4.2 field changes 4.2.1 In the case of municipalities
- 4.2.2 With offices
The district of North Friesland is in the northwest of Schleswig-Holstein. At the county adjoining authorities the Danish municipalities are Tønder and Aabenraa in the north, the district of Schleswig -Flensburg (the river treene partially forms the natural border ) to the east, and the south of the circle Dithmar ( the Eider here forms a natural border ). West limits the circle the coastline of the North Sea. The lying in the Wadden Sea North Frisian islands and islets are also part of the circle area. The northern tip of the island of Sylt, the elbow, is the northernmost point of Germany. The highest elevations are the Sandeberg in the community east field at 54 m above sea level. NN and Uwe dune in Kampen on Sylt with 52.5 m above sea level. NN.
The county has seen geomorphological, shares of the following natural areas:
- March and
The Wadden Sea is not considered despite its geological peculiarity and extensive area than their own natural environment.
The islands of the Wadden Sea is in wide ranges remnant formerly submerged cultivated land (see: Uthlande ). The coastal strip is a relative majority back gewichene coast to one designed by Hartmut Küstenmorphologen Valentin scheme. The islands can be divided into Geest core islands (Sylt, Fohr and Amrum ), the march Pellworm, which consists of marching peninsula north beach and also made of march holms. The eiderstedt Peninsula forms the southern part of the circle. The North Frisian Wadden Sea is part of the National Park Schleswig -Holstein Wadden Sea.
The geography of the circle was coined in outline by the ice ages. Especially the coastline but changes dynamically, where unlike in the southern Dithmarschen spite of human land reclamation in the last centuries and more land was lost to the sea as could be recovered. Especially storm surges as the Second Marcellus 1362 ( Grote Mandränke ) flooded wide marshes and tore them into the sea. She noticed also the place Rungholt victim.
In North Friesland there are 33 nature reserves, taking 9.21% of the land area. Of the total 441,000 hectares of the National Park Schleswig -Holstein Wadden Sea are 176 290 hectares to nordfriesischem area.
Geest core islands
The islands of Sylt, Fohr and Amrum are largely built on glacial moraine cores. The highest elevations on the island of Sylt and Amrum are dunes. For this purpose, the three islands march surfaces, most of which are dammed.
Marsh islands and islets
The marsh islands and islets have no Geest core, but consist only of the march, developed later. Land and sea are here in constant motion. In particular, the surfaces in the region of the former island beach are constantly changing. Since the seawall at Beltringharder polder of the area consists of the reorganized peninsula north beach, the island and the islets Pellworm Langeneß, Oland, Gröde, Habel, Hamburg Holm, Nordstrandischmoor, Hooge, Norderoog Süderoog and Südfall. The Field is a line of sands upstream, starting with the one -kilometer-wide Amrumer Kniepsand extends over several sands in the sea as the Norderoogsand and Süderoogsand and expires in the wide, sandy beach of St. Peter -Ording. By the Wadden Sea extend in this area numerous up to 20 meters deep Watt currents that attack the watts and the foundation of holms and islands. The most important of them is the Hever between North beach and eiderstedt ( Süderhever ) and North beach and Pellworm ( Norderhever ). The northern part of the stream formed only after the Burchardiflut and was instrumental in tear apart the two parts Alt- Nordstrand. As he had continued a strong current, efforts were made to protect the coastline, again to build a dam between North beach and Pellworm to insulate by the current. In recent years, but he has calmed down, so that the project in the current General Plan Coastal protection (as of 2005) should no longer be implemented.
Marshes on the mainland
The North Frisian march goes from the Danish border to Hattstedt - Schobüll, where part of the Geest adjacent to the North Sea. To the west it is bounded by the sea, to the east of the Geest. The march is low, mostly just below the sea level. It originated in the exchange between ice ages and warm periods of the so-called North Frisian groove between two Altmoränen, today Geest in the east and the Geest islands in the West. Until the early modern era, today's march area consisted of a large number of islands and islets, which were in constant change through land reclamation and storm surges. Through its history, the older soils are in contrast to the more southern marshes of low fertility and are almost only for grassland management. The settlement started here because of the great flood susceptibility also later than in eiderstedt and Dithmar.
The Eiderstedter march is south of the Geest projection at Hattstedt - Schobüll. She is younger than the scenic North Frisian march. A large part of the country was only created by land reclamation, which connected the three islands that make eiderstedt consisted of a peninsula. Youngest polder is the nature reserve Katinger watts. The marshes are bounded on the seaward side by two kilometers wide sands, to the south lies the Eider, in the southeast includes the march to the Eider- Treene lowlands, to the north lies the North Frisian march. The Eiderstedter march is crossed by several former spits on which are most localities. The area is fertile. Together with the now largely lost to the sea island Old North beach was eiderstedt the granary of Gottorfer dukes. The area is slightly higher than the North Frisian march, so that natural drainage is possible here.
Geest areas on the mainland
For Schleswig Geest 's count the delicious Geest and south of the Bredstedt- Husum Geest. Next southeast lies, part of the Geest Eider treene Lowland.
Northern Friesland is located in the Atlantic climate area. The circle is compared with other areas of Germany in the summer of comparatively cool, relatively warm in winter, with the Atlantic climate noticeably expresses also in the district from east to west stronger. Does the Geest still about 190 frost-free days in the year, there are already 220 days on the islands. In the marshes Frost rarely occurs before the end of October and as rare after mid-April.
The precipitation minimum is from February to June at 40 mm / month, while from August about 80 mm / month fall to October. It falls in the summer months on the islands, the march and eiderstedt significantly less rainfall than on the Geest. The average wind speed is very high, even in the rest of the district is significantly higher than in most regions of Germany with 7 meters / second on the islands!
The background of the circle North Frisia North Frisia see # History.
The history of North Frisia as a political and an administrative unit took the discussions at the end of the 1960s and the subsequent preparatory planning of the district reform of 1970 concrete form. After plans for the formation of such a group were discussed already in the 1920s, first by the North Frisian Society for History and love of country, this flared up in post-war Germany again. In the fall of 1968, the circles Südtondern, Husum and eiderstedt was suggested in a report to summarize a great circle. This association was related to a district reform, which affected the whole of Schleswig -Holstein, which aimed to reduce the number of circuits.
However, the subsequently performed in the discussions civil and political circles of the three previous groups showed different images. On both sides, only the representatives of the circle Husum endorsed this merger, saw the plans before but that Husum should remain county seat. But situation was different in the two neighboring circles. In the poorest inhabitants at the time of Schleswig-Holstein district eiderstedt the political representatives wanted a connection to the circle Dithmar, which was however rejected by the majority of the population. In the northern neighboring district Südtondern the confrontation was particularly close. On the political side agreed the district council by a vote of the parties CDU, SPD and FDP against a merger. Only the two representatives of the SSW, Carsten Boysen and Ernst Meyer, were in favor of the reform. On a side civic civil action was founded Justice for Südtondern. Most hoped to be able to maintain the independence. As a compromise was only called the alternative, which Südtondern are brought together more than with the circle Husum ( without eiderstedt ) and should remain Niebüll county seat.
Responsible for the reorganization was finally the vote in the Schleswig- Holstein Landtag. Here, the decision was made in favor of the recommended in the Opinion region blank. Despite the dissenting vote of Südtonderaner CDU - constituency MPs and various SPD opposition politicians, the bill received a majority of one vote. It was that of the North Frisian SSW deputies Berthold Bahnsen. Thus, the North Frisian circle formation was therefore not caused by the free decision of the North Frisians themselves. In the context of a local election, the circles were merged as planned on April 26, 1970.. The three circles eiderstedt, Husum and Südtondern (up to six communities ) and three municipalities of the former district of Schleswig "North Friesland district " based in Husum became the new united.
On a partial area of the vacated premises of the traditional Husum livestock market the new central administration building, together with visitor and staff parking was.
The district council elections in 1978 in the district of North Friesland and in the district of Steinburg came for the first time in Germany Green lists, the precursor of Alliance 90/The Greens, over the five- percent hurdle.
Since 2004, the district of North Friesland is established option municipality for benefits under SGB II this was added in Westerland, Wyk auf Foehr set up, leak, Niebüll, Breklum, Husum and Tonning social centers.
The following persons were in the circle formation Director of Administration:
The political orientation of the circle is determined by the council. The panel will routinely redetermined every five years as part of the Schleswig-Holstein municipal election. In the current legislature, the CDU holds 21 of 52 seats, the SPD 12 seats, the voter community of North Friesland 5 seats, Alliance 90/The Greens five seats, the SSW 5 seats, the FDP 2 seats and the Pirate Party and Die Linke per one seat Actually, the district council comprises only 45 seats, but because of overhang mandates, there are in the current election period 7 more seats.
In the local elections in May 2013 the CDU reached 39.6 percent. The SPD came to 24.1 percent. The Wählergemeinschaft North Frisia reached 10.5 percent. The Greens came to 9.9 percent. The SSW received 9.2 percent of the vote, the FDP came to 3.7 percent. The Pirate Party received 1.8 percent, while the Left achieved 1.3 percent.
Other important political offices
In the area of the circle of North Friesland there since the state election 2012, two constituencies (previously three). This is the constituencies Südtondern and Husum. Directly elected MPs are the two CDU 's deputy Astrid Damerow ( Südtondern ) and Klaus Jensen ( Husum ).
In the Bundestag, the interests of the circle by the directly elected representatives of the constituency 2 (North Friesland North - Dithmar ) are represented. In the current legislature, this is Ingbert Liebing ( CDU). In Peter Harry Carstensen, he had a prominent predecessor. This coming from the north beach MPs gave the mandate in favor of his prime minister post in Schleswig -Holstein.
Coat of arms and flag
Blazon: " Azure, three golden three-masted ships in the 16th century style in position 2: 1 with golden sails and red pennants; on the mainsails ever a red strings with ( 1 plow, 2 fish, 3 bull's head ). "
The coat of arms with modifications based on the historical coat of arms of 1613 of the old circle eiderstedt. It was created in 1970 on the merger of three circles Südtondern, Husum and eiderstedt and is in the Frisian colors of blue, gold and red maintained. The three ships symbolize both the Frisian unit as well as the importance of the sea and shipping has always had for the circle. Plow and bull head stand for the agriculture in the county, the fish for fishing. Plow and bull's head also hail from the Eiderstedter coat of arms, the plow was also in the Husum crest. The fish was taken from Sylt herring, the symbol of the island of Sylt.
Blazon: " In the middle of a blue, top and bottom by two narrow stripes, a red outer and an inner gold, bordered field, the three ships of the escutcheon ( 2: 1)., Shifted slightly to the bar towards "
Official policy partnerships with other regions do not exist. But one maintains a sponsorship to the Polish authorities of the island of Wollin, Pomerania and the Pommern
Cities and Towns
(Population at 31 December 2012)
- 4 Sylt ( 13,508 )
- 5 Tonning, city ( 4909 )
Offices with official member municipalities / cities (* = seat of the Office Administration)
- 2 Office Fohr Amrum ( 10,619 )
- 3 office landscape Sylt ( 4343 ) (Headquarters: Sylt)
- 4 Official Mid North Friesland ( 20,269 )
- 5 Office North Sea treene ( 22,841 )
- 6 Office Pellworm (1431) (Located in Husum )
- 7 Office Südtondern ( 39 258 )
- 8 Official Viöl ( 9117 )
Political circle map
- Resolution of the municipality Ipernstedt - incorporation to Rantrum (July 1, 1974)
- Resolution of the municipality Schwabstedter Westerkoog - incorporation to Schwabstedt (1975; exact date unknown)
- Resolution of the municipality Hollbüllhaus - incorporation to Schwabstedt (1976; exact date unknown)
- Resolution of the communities Hochviöl and Hoxtrup - incorporation to Viöl (July 1, 1976)
- Resolution of the municipality Augustenkoog - incorporation to Osterhever (1 January 1997 )
- Resolution of the municipality Schobüll - incorporation to Husum ( 1 January 2007)
- Resolution of the communities Rantum and Sylt-Ost and the town of Westerland - Sylt merger to the new community, the Office is free ( 1 January 2009)
- Inclusion of official free community List (Sylt ) in the Office of landscape Sylt (1 January 2004 )
- Inclusion of official -level city Garding in the Office eiderstedt (1 January 2006 )
- Formation of the Office Fohr Amrum from the resolved offices Amrum and Foehr - country as well as the hitherto official free city Wyk (1 January 2007 )
- Formation of the Office of the North Sea treene resolved offices Friedrichstadt ( except Friedrichstadt, which is official or not), Hattstedt, North beach and treene (1 January 2008 )
- Formation of the Office Südtondern from the resolved offices Bökingharde, Karrharde, Suderlugum and Wiedingharde and from the office to date free community leakage and to date official free Niebüll (1 January 2008 )
- Inclusion of official free town of Sankt Peter -Ording in the Office eiderstedt (1 January 2008 )
- Formation of the Office Mid North Frisia from the resolved offices Bredstedt- country and Stollberg and the hitherto official free city Bredstedt ( 1 April 2008)