55.537.8Koordinaten: 55 ° 30 'N, 37 ° 48 ' E
The Moscow Oblast (Russian Московская область / Moskovskaya oblast, colloquially or semi- officially even Подмосковье / Podmoskowje ) is an oblast in the Central Federal District of Russia. It includes the densely populated and economically developed greater Moscow area. The city is the administrative center of Moscow Oblast, although administratively belongs to, but represents a separate federal subject dar.
The region lies in the fertile basin of the rivers Volga, Oka, Klyazma and Moskva River. To the north and west of the oblast is the Moscow ridge, which reaches to the Klin - Dmitrower range of hills up to 310 m altitude. To the east and southeast is the lowlands Meschtschora. In the southwest lies the central Russian plate.
On the territory of the Moscow area, there are over 300 rivers, but only the Volga, the Oka and Moskva River are ship bahr. The Moskva River flows through the Oblast from west to east and ends in the south of the Oblass in the Oka, which flows through the southern part of the district. Altogether there are about 350 lakes, however, are all shallow. Many of them were created during the Ice Age. The largest lakes of Moscow region are the Seneschsee with an area of 15.4 km ² and the Swjatojesee with an area of 12.6 km ². In the Moscow area, there are also swamps, they are particularly numerous on the Meschtschora low level and at the Werchnewolschskaja low level. About half of the area is covered with forest. Most commonly it is above spruce, pine and birch.
A characteristic feature of the fauna of the Moscow Oblast are red fox, badger, squirrel, wild boar, elk, hare and hedgehog. Over 170 bird species, including various woodpeckers and thrushes, bullfinches, nightingales ( " Nightingale" ), white stork and herons. In the waters of the Moscow Oblast there are ruffe, carp, carp, bream, roach, perch and pike. The area is rich in insect species. Alone by the bees, there are over 300 species.
The Moscow region has different minerals. High-quality sands, see the Building and Silikasande in the glass industry. The sound and Lehmlagerstätten are numerous here. The area around Moscow is known for its limestone. In Moscow there are also peat. In the Moscow region many mineral springs were tapped.
Before the 9th century, mainly populated Finno - Finnish tribes, the current territory of the Moscow River and the surrounding landscapes. The Slavs have begun in the 10th century with the active development of this area.
At the middle of the 12th century, the territory of modern Moscow Oblast was the Principality of Vladimir - Suzdal affiliated. At the same cities as Volokolamsk, Moscow, Zvenigorod, Dmitrov were founded. In the first half of the 13th century the whole area was devastated during the Mongol invasion of Rus. From the 13th century the area around Moscow was already part of the Duchy of Moscow. In the second half of the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow became the core of the emerging centralized Russian state.
Since 1708 the area of Peter the Great founded the Moscow province belonged. From the 18th to the 19th century, light industry, especially the textile industry experienced a boom. Your important centers were Bogorodsk, Pavlovsky Posad and Orechowo - Zuyevo. 1851 was transferred to the territory of the Moscow province, the first railway line that connected Moscow with St. Petersburg, and in 1862 the railway line was opened to Nizhny Novgorod in operation.
On 14 January 1929, the Oblast was founded under the name of Central Industrial Oblast. On June 3, 1929 finally it was renamed in its present name. After the start of the Barbarossa campaign in all industrial plants and key enterprises of the Moscow Oblast have been widely installed in the hinterland. 1934, 1956 and 1966 received the Order of Lenin Oblast.
On 1 July 2012, the Moscow Oblast had to cede to the city of Moscow as part of the capital expansion two regions. The annular shape of the Moscow Oblast surrounding was so interrupted by the capital expansion to the southeast.
A few months earlier, on May 11, 2012, the Minister Sergei Shoigu previous disaster had been appointed governor of the Moscow Oblast. He held office only a few months until he was appointed on November 6, 2012 for the Secretary of Defense. Two days later, on 8 November, Russian President Vladimir Putin appointed the Vice Chairman of the State Duma and chairman of the Duma faction " United Russia ," Andrei Vorobjow, as Acting Governor of Moscow Oblast. He is only about a year shall remain in office until the next regional elections in September 2013.
Until the beginning of the 20th century dominated the textile industry; today among the most important branches of mechanical engineering, metal processing, chemical industry, building materials industry and light industry as the oldest industry in the region. On the territory of Moscow Oblast foreign investment projects to be implemented.
Currently, the Moscow region ranks in the value of the second place among the regions of Russia (excluding St. Petersburg and Moscow ).
Education and Science
Many important Russian research institutions are located in the oblast. In terms of its scientific importance, the Moscow Oblast is second only to Moscow and St. Petersburg. Already in the 1930s and 1940s emerged on the territory of science cities. In August 2008, the city Protwino was elevated to a science city.
In the oblast there are 77 cities and 70 urban-type settlements, which are a city and four urban settlements "closed" ( SATO ). 18 of the cities are cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, including the belonging to the Golden Ring tourist center Sergiev Posad and a number of important industrial sites.
Both the total number of cities as well as the number of cities is by far the largest for a federal subject of Russia. Most cities are located in the near vicinity of the capital Moscow and together with this the most populous with about 15 million inhabitants agglomeration of Russia.
The Moscow Oblast is divided into 36 Rajons and 36 urban districts. Two other pre-existing urban districts, Schtscherbinka and Troitsk, were connected by 1 July 2012 to the city of Moscow, as well as parts of the Rajons Leninsky, Naro- Fominsk and Podolsk. These areas form the new Moscow administrative districts Nowomoskowski and Troitsk.
- The population and area figures for the Rajons Leninsky, Naro- Fominsk and Podolsk refer to the time before the connection of parts of these areas to the city of Moscow on 1 July 2012.
Note: * Closed City
The Moscow Oblast was the owner of the Russian premier league football club Ramenskoje Saturn, the Saturn Moskovskaya Oblast therefore FK was officially called. On 30 December 2010, the Government of Moscow Oblast met but to liquidate the club 's decision.