Still in his early youth John Sloane came into the borders of the modern state of Ohio, where he attended preparatory schools. Later he hit as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party launched a political career. Between 1803 and 1805, and again in 1807 he was a delegate in the House of Representatives from Ohio. From 1808 to 1816 he worked as a receiver of public moneys for the tax authorities in Canton. Thereafter, he practiced this profession from 1816 to 1819 in Wooster from. During the British - American War he was a colonel in the state militia.
In the congressional elections of 1818 Sloane was in the sixth electoral district of Ohio in the U.S. House of Representatives in Washington DC chosen, where he became the successor of Peter Hitchcock on March 4, 1819. After four elections he could pass in Congress until March 3, 1829 five legislative sessions. Since 1823 he represented there, the then newly established twelfth district of his state. In the 1820s Sloane joined the movement against the later U.S. President Andrew Jackson and became a member of the short-lived National Republican Party. From 1821 to 1829 he was Chairman of the Election Committee.
In 1831, Sloane was employed in the management of the Appeal Court in Wayne County. He worked there for several years. Between 1841 and 1844 he practiced as a follower of William Trevitt, the Office of the Secretary of State of his home state. From 1850 to 1853 he served as Treasurer of the United States (Treasurer of the United States) in the U.S. Treasury. John Sloane died on 15 May 1856 in Wooster, where he was also buried.